Building Muscle - So you want to pack on a few pounds of lean muscle mass? Before you embark on your quest for muscularity you need to remember a few key facts as they are the foundation for any muscle building program: Diet, Exercises, and Recovery. First lets take a look at diet and food nutrition, because without it your body simply will not grow...EAT, EAT, EAT !- First off try to Include as much variety in your diet as you possibly can. It's recommended you consume five to six medium size meals during the day rather than two or three big ones. Try to Include a large amount of high quality protein in your diet and cut out as much animal fat as possible. Also, the lighter you cook your foods, the more nutrients will be retained. Its is also key to consume lots of natural carbs found in grains, breads, fruits and veggies. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements are also very important as they contain digestive enzymes (this will aid in protein synthesis). Avoid junk food and empty calories(sugar). Try to stay away from soda and beer as they are packed with empty calories. Whatever you do don't miss meals! Missing meals puts your body in a
fat-storing mode. Don't add extra sodium (salt) to your food. Avoid excessive alcohol. Recent studies confirm that a glass of red wine a day is good for you because of the flavanoids, but avoid drinking excessively! Don't hesitate to splurge or treat yourself to a huge meal every now  and then, just don't make it a habit.

Most bodybuilders will agree that eating every 2 hours or so will give your body "balance", and by being consistent your digestive system and muscles will love you for it.

Here's an example six meal day:

· 8AM - : Eggs, whole grain toast, half a cantaloupe, one or two glasses of skim milk, and a multipack of vitamins & minerals. An excellent way to start the day.

· 10AM - :Yogurt (digestive enzymes), fruit, slice of whole grain bread

· 1PM - : Baked potato, broiled fish, steamed green veggies, one or two glasses of skim milk

· 4PM - : Tuna fish sandwich, a scoop of nonfat cottage cheese, a piece of fruit

· 7PM - : skinned, broiled chicken breast, brown rice, a green or yellow veggie or a large salad, glass of milk

· 10PM - : Protein shake before bed.

Take a look at the charts below, they are designed to give you an idea of what your target intake of protein, carbs, and fat should be as they relate to your specific goal:

Training day diet (based on a 200lb bodyweight) Carbs Protein

Meal 1

Meal 2
Meal 3
Post-Workout (within 10 minutes after)
Post-Workout 2
Post-Workout 3
Total Grams

Off-day diet (based on a 200lb bodyweight)

Carbs Protein

Meal 1

Meal 2
Meal 3
Meal 4
Meal 5
Meal 6
Total Grams
"Cutting" diet (based on a 200lb bodyweight) Carbs Protein

Meal 1

Meal 2
Meal 3
Post-Workout (within 10 minutes after)
Post-Workout 2
Post-Workout 3
Total Grams

Protein - Proteins are the basic building blocks of life. Protein, and only protein, provides your body with the amino acids it needs to build, repair and rebuild muscles. Protein also provides the necessary components to keep your immune system healthy, make hormones, enzymes, skin, hair, nails, organs and blood.

Throughout history, whey protein has been used to soothe burns, to inspire vitality and to cure various illnesses including jaundice, infected lesions of skin, gonorrhea, epilepsy, and more. Today, science is proving the power of whey to be far greater. From being a great foundation for building strong, lean muscles and healthy bones, to lowering cholesterol and assisting in cancer prevention, whey protein can make a difference in every stage of life. What is Whey protein? Whey is a byproduct of cheese making that contains vitamins, minerals, protein, lactose and traces of milk fat. Most commercial whey supplements are derived from cow’s milk, which is comprised of 6.25% protein: 20% in the form of whey. Whey protein supplements utilize the concentrated protein, eliminating the lactose and milk fat. Whey is a complete protein, meaning it contains all essential and nonessential amino acids, which are vital to your metabolism, and to making your body function properly for good health.

How much do I need? Several factors play critical roles in how much protein your body needs. Age, size (height and weight), metabolic rate, exercise level, stress factors (work, health status, viral or bacterial infection), your amount of sleep, and the quality and quantity of foods you eat, all play a role in determining your protein requirements. Extensive research into human metabolic rates and how they are affected by age, activity and stress have been prepared over the last decade by leading physicians in hospital settings. See the table below for estimates of your protein requirements based on your personal lifestyle/training goals.

Lifestyle/Training Goal

Daily Protein Needs


0.45 - 0.7g/lb bodyweight

Trauma Recovery

0.9 - 1.4g/lb bodyweigh


0.35 - 1.0g/lb bodyweight


0.7 - 0.9g/lb bodyweight

Power & Speed

0.9 - 1.1g/lb bodyweight

Strength & Bodybuilding

1.3 - 1.6g/lb bodyweight


If you are serious about building muscle, then it is imperative that you consume enough protein to support new growth, otherwise you’re not taking full advantage of your workouts. A person weighing 200lbs. would have to consume roughly 260 grams of protein throughout the day, that’s a lot of food, but every body builder will agree that if you want to be big you need to eat big.Now, I know that 260 grams of protein seems like a lot, but if you eat 6 meals a day it is actually easy to break up and consume.

 For some of us it’s hard to find enough time in the day to eat that much and this is where protein shakes come in handy. You can easily use shakes to make up for the protein that you were unable to intake just by eating regular foods, plus they’re good for a few additional vitamins and minerals. Typically a 16oz. shake will contain roughly 50g. of protein is mixed with milk. I highly recommend Designer Whey brand of protein shakes. Their protein is known to be the best on the market when it comes to quality and purity. When making shakes I recommend trying to add fruits in the mix, strawberry, kiwi, and bananas will definitely make them more taste bud friendly.

Now that you know how much protein you need I bet you’re wondering what foods are highest in it? Click here and check out the Nutritional Values menu and see just how much protein is in your favorite foods.

Carbohydrates - Getting enough calories is important, but so is getting the right kind of calories. Carbohydrate, stored in the body as glycogen, is the predominant energy source for muscle-building exercise. The harder and longer you work out, the more glycogen your muscles require.

Once your muscles are depleted of glycogen, you have no more energy to continue your workout. There are different ways to figure out your carbohydrate needs, but the bottom line is that with at least 300 to 400 grams of carbohydrate per day, your muscles will stay packed with glycogen. One method is to base your intake on 2.8 grams per pound of body weight. About 420 grams per day or about 1,800 carbohydrate calories for a 140-pound person, and 560 grams or 2,200 carbohydrate calories for a 200-pound person. A second strategy for computing your carbohydrate needs is based on a percentage of total calories. When total energy intake is below 4,000 calories a day, getting 70% of those calories from carbohydrates will ensure the muscle power and endurance required to strength train. With a diet above 4,000 total calories a day, a lower percentage of calories can be obtained from carbohydrates, as long as you take in at least 500 to 600 grams of carbohydrate.

For middle aged persons, therapies that might restore youthful carbohydrate metabolism include 200 mcg of chromium 3 times a day, 3 to 6 grams of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and 250 to 500 mg a day of alpha-lipoic acid. All three supplements are effective in improving insulin efficiency and sensitivity. Alpha- lipoic acid is being touted as the "new insulin-mimicker" in many gyms. In several studies involving type II diabetics, alpha-lipoic acid was shown to increase the body's utilization of blood sugar. A greater uptake of blood sugar by muscles could lead to enhanced glycogen synthesis and ultimately greater gains in lean muscle.

Water - Next on the list of important elements is water. Good hydration is just as essential for strength training as it is for endurance training. Your body requires at least eight 8-ounce cups of caffeine-free, non-alcoholic fluids every day. You need to drink even more to replace fluids that are lost during exercise. Make sure you go into your workouts well hydrated by drinking 16oz. of water 2 hours before exercise. While training, drink 4 to 8 ounces every 15 to 20 minutes. After exercise, replace any further fluid losses with 16 ounces of fluids. Another approach is to weigh yourself before and after exercise: Any weight lost is fluid. Replace every pound lost with at least 16 ounces of fluid. Note: If you are supplementing with Creatine, your water intake should almost be double the recommended amount.

Supplements - Creatine and L-Glutimine are the best of the best, hands down! When it comes time for body building supplementation theses two are a must. We also strongly recommend taking a daily multivitamin as it also will aid the the muscle cell regeneration process.

Creatine- Studies have shown that creatine supplements can provide additional energy for your muscles, volumize muscle cells and buffer lactic acid build-up. Creatine provides energy for your muscles. In your body you have an energy containing compound called ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate). What is important to know about ATP is that the body can very quickly get energy from an ATP reaction. You have other sources of energy such as carbohydrates and fat - but they take longer to convert into a useable energy source. When you are doing an intense quick burst activity such as lifting a weight or sprinting, your muscles use ATP for a quick burst of energy. In order for ATP to release its energy it must give up a phosphate molecule and become ADP (adenosine di-phosphate). Unfortunately, we do not have an endless supply of ATP. In fact, your muscles only contain enough ATP to last about 10-15 seconds at maximum exertion. Here is where the creatine comes in to play. When creatine enters the muscles it bonds with a phosphate and becomes creatine phosphate (CP). CP is able to react with the ADP in your body and turn "useless" ADP back into the "super useful" energy source - ATP. More ATP in your body means more fuel for your muscles. This is the process by which creatine provides more energy for your muscles. Volumization of your muscles- Creatine also pulls water into your muscle cells. This gives you a "pumped" look because your muscles have expanded with the increase of water that is trapped in your muscles.

Buffer lactic acid build-up We all know that terrible burning you get in your muscles when you reach the fatigue point. New research has shown that creatine can help buffer lactic acid that builds-up in the muscles during exercise.Creatine is made up of the three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine. Our body produces creatine (it is made in the liver) and we also can get creatine from our diet. At any given time the average person has about 120 grams of creatine stored in their body.

- How much do I need? We recommend that you take about 5 grams per day. Many creatine manufacturers recommend a loading phase where you take 20 grams a day for the first 5 days - but our research indicated that it may not be necessary. Taking 5 grams a day will produce significant results without the hassle and expense of taking 20 grams a day for the first 5 days.

- Should I cycle Creatine? Recent studies published in muscle guru Joe Weider's Flex magazine reveal that, contrary to popular protocol, the best results from using a creatine supplement are attained not by "loading" and tapering, but steady introduction and "cycling".1 According to the studies published in Flex, the best way to take creatine is one to two grams with water thirty minutes before exercising, then another one to two grams an hour afterward with a fruit juice. Cycle your use of creatine six weeks using it, two weeks off; your muscle tissues fill up and after six weeks additional supplementation is wasted. I've also checked into what some of the creatine manufacturers had to say about it and 6 out of 7 recommended cycling it. Some say 3 weeks on, followed by one week off, or even 6 weeks on, followed by 2 weeks off.

Negative Effects- There is a vast amount of research that indicates that taking 5 grams of creatine a day is not dangerous to your health. While there is the need for more long term studies, new studies have shown that creatine does not have long term negative effects. On November 12, 1999 at the 19th Annual Southwest American College of Sports Medicine Meeting, two long term creatine studies were presented from the Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab at the University of Memphis*. Both studies showed that 9 months of creatine supplementation (taking an average of 5 grams per day) in athletes had no negative effects on markers of renal function or muscle and liver enzymes in comparison to athletes not taking creatine.

L-Glutamine-Glutamine has become more prominent as new studies reveal its unique contribution to protein synthesis (muscle growth), anti-proteolytic (prevents muscle tissue breakdown) functions and growth hormone elevating effects. Glutamine provides a critical link in muscle metabolism not shared by any other single amino acid.Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in the blood and in the intracellular free amino acid pool (most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue). It comprises 61% of the amino acid pool in skeletal muscle. Glutamine’s unique structure, containing two nitrogen side chains, consists of 19% nitrogen - making it the primary transporter of nitrogen into the muscle cell. In fact, glutamine alone is responsible for 35% of the nitrogen that gets into the muscle cell. Glutamine literally drives muscle building nitrogen into the muscle cell where it is synthesized for growth.

Now for the exciting news - In a recent release of the prestigious American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the results of a study on glutamine revealed that a single 2 gram oral dose of glutamine elevated circulating growth hormone levels by over 430%! By keeping a consistently high level of circulating growth hormone, you are able to combat the catabolic effects of weight training, harness the anabolic activity of increased glucose and amino acid uptake, improve whole body nitrogen retention, and increase lean tissue protein accrual.

Recovery - Probably the most important part of the recovery cycle is sleep. Recovery, which is the period during which muscle growth occurs, will not take place without enough sleep. If you have ever wondered how teenagers can sleep all day, it's because their bodies are growing, therefore they can naturally sleep for extended periods of time.The number one reason sleep is important is because Growth Hormone rises during deep sleep, which often begins about 30-45 minutes after falling asleep. The amount of sleep is also another key factor. Generally, 7to 12 hours of sleep are sufficient. If you are receiving less than 6 hours of sleep per night then you are basically wasting your workouts.

How much muscle should I expect to gain?
- The average weight training athlete, if using the proper diet and training program can expect to gain 1.5 - 3lbs of lean muscle mass per month. This number tends to rise of course when you start to factor in genetics, supplements, recovery time, etc.. .

- Determining how much muscle you could possibly gain can be gauged by several factors. First and foremost, your genetic potential, how much you eat, what you eat, how hard you train, and your training experience all play a role in how much muscle you can expect to gain. First, your genetic potential plays a huge role in muscle gains. Some people known as hardgainers will have to try very hard to put on even a pound of muscle. And then there are those who were blessed with the genetic ability to pack on muscle with ease.

- Secondly, how much you eat also dictates how much weight you gain. If you are barely consuming enough calories to support your new growth, odds are you won't gain very much muscle at all.I worked out for close to 2 years during my early 20's and I barely put on 5lbs. I was ripped but definitely was lacking the bulk. Once I started eating A LOT, I began to notice phenomenal gains! just within the past year I have managed to pack on 21lbs of lean mass, eating is key. Make sure you count your calories and know how much you are consuming. If you have questions about the calorie count in your favorite foods, click here to take advantage of our nutritional values information. Next, what types of food you eat is very important. You could be eating 5,000 calories a day of fast food and cookies and then realize that your not making good gains. The answer is obvious, to make good gains you have to eat good food. This means getting a lot of high quality protein, complex carbohydrates, amino acids and fats. Of course how hard you train also determines what kind of progress you will be making, your muscles wouldn't grow very much without it. Training hard doesn't mean you have to be in the gym 24/7, it means going to the gym anywhere from 2-5 days a week and training the right way for your athletic type, whether it be endurance athlete bodybuilder or someone try to lose weight. Lastly, your overall experience will play a role in your muscle gains. Beginners tend to put on muscle quickly and easily, especially when coupled with an advanced diet. Then as you get more into the intermediate and advanced stages you may notice your gains start to taper down .



1 Kraemer, W. J., & Fleck, S. J. (1993). Strength Training for Young Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2 Larson, R. L., & McMahan, R. O. (1966). The Epiphyses and the Childhood Athlete. Journal of the American Medical Association, 196, 607-612. 3 Weltman, A., Janney, C., Rians, C. B., Strand, K., Berg, B., Tippitt, S., Wise, J., Cahill, B. R., & Katch, F. I. (1986). The effects of hydraulic resistance strength training in pre-pubertal males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18, 629-638. 4 Strength training in children and adolescents. Webb, D. R.,Pediatr Clin North Am, 37(5):1187-210 1990 Oct. 5 Pfeiffer, R. D., & Francis, R. S.. (1986). Effects of strength training of prepubescent, pubescent, and post pubescent males. Physician and Sports Medicine, 14(9), 134-143. 6 Neuromuscular adaptations following prepubescent strength training. Ozmun, J. C., Mikesky, A. E., Surburg, P. R., Med Sci Sports Exerc, 26(4):510-4 1994 Apr. 7 Clapp, A. J., Murray, T. D., Walker, J. L., Rainey, D. L., Squires, W. G., & Jackson, A. S. (1995). The effect of six weeks of resistance training on isometric and isotonic strength in adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 118. 8 Weight-training injuries in adolescents. Risser, W. L., Risser, J. M., Preston, D. Am J Dis Child, 144(9):1015-7 1990 Sep.








A grape seed extract which acts as a powerful antioxidant.

Amino Acids

Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. Eight of these amino acids are essential, which means that the body cannot manufacture them. The rest of amino acids are non-essential, which means that they can be manufactured by the body, but only with proper nutrition. Amino acids can build cells, repair tissue, and form antibodies. They also build RNA and DNA, and carry oxygen throughout the body. Proteins are made up of amino acids.


This term refers to the male sex hormones (testosterone, androsterone) or any agent that encourages the development of male sex characteristics.


A weak androgenic steroid secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovary. In normal males less than 5% of their testosterone comes from the conversion of adrenal androstenedione. Androstenedione is converted to testosterone by the enzyme 17-ketoreductase. Androstenedione and testosterone are converted to estrone and estradiol in peripheral tissues (primarily in adipose tissue but also in muscle, kidney, liver and the hypothalamus) by aromatase. The conversion of androstenedione and testosterone accounts for more than 75% of the estrogens in the plasma of normal men. The rest is synthesized in the testes. Gonadotropin secretion may be partially controlled by estrogen formation in the hypothalamus.


Nutrients that combat ever-present free radicals created through oxidation in the body. Free radicals are believed to contribute to a number of health problems.


A patented form of hydrolyzed collagen protein (HCL), which forms the framework of human cartilage. The effectiveness of HCL in promoting healthy joints was demonstrated through $10 million in worldwide clinical trials.


Adenosine Triphosphate - a compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to three phosphoric acid molecules. It serves to store energy in muscles which is released when it is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate.



A nutrient that is converted to Vitamin A by the body when needed. Contains antioxidant properties.


A patented thermogenic nutrient; increases the body’s efficiency in the uptake of nutrients.

Biotin (Vitamin B)

Essential for metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates.


A mineral that may play a role in maintaining strong bones, affecting calcium and magnesium metabolism and proper membrane function.



A mineral that helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth, regulate heartbeat and muscle contractions, and ensure proper blood clotting. Adequate intake can help prevent or minimize osteoporosis.


Measurement of the potential of food to supply energy. Carbohydrates – The body’s principal source of energy. Simple carbohydrates come from sugars; complex carbohydrates come from starches and fiber. The body converts them to glucose, which is used to energize cells.


An amino acid essential for the breakdown of fat into energy. Carnitine may improve the utilization of fats for energy and can be beneficial in conditions associated with impaired fat breakdown and energy production. Carnitine may be beneficial in heart disease, enhancing physical performance, Alzhiemers disease, diabetes, liver disease, and protection against drug toxicity.


Substance manufactured by the liver and other organs and consumed via animal fat. High-fat diets increase the amount made. It is believed that high levels lead to collection of cholesterol in the arteries, possibly leading to serious health risks.


A nutrient that helps prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver; aids in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins.


Mineral important in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats; helps build lean muscle tissue and regulate blood sugar levels.

CLA(Conjugated linoleic acid)

A naturally occurring nutrient which scientists have discovered exerts a positive effect on protein and fat metabolism.

Coenzyme Q 10

Vital to energy production at the cellular level; used for endurance improvement. Supplementation may decrease fatigue, muscle weakness and obesity. Also recognized for its strong antioxidant properties.


Mineral important in the formation of red blood cells; keeps bones, blood vessels, nerves and the immune system healthy.

Creatine monohydrate

Maximizes the body’s level of stored creatine phosphate; results in increased peak athletic performance and shortened muscle recovery time.


DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)

A hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Primary function is to produce estrogen and testosterone.

Dietary fiber

Consists of both soluble (dissolves in water) and insoluble (does not dissolve in water) fiber. Diets high in dietary fiber and low in fat may have a protective effect against many chronic illnesses, including heart disease and some cancers, and may reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.


A sympathetic nerve stimulant resembling adrenaline, its effect on the unstriped muscular fibres is remarkable. It acts promptly in relieving swellings of the mucous membrane. It has valuable antispasmodic properties, acts on the air passages and is of benefit in asthma and hay fever; it is also employed for rheumatism; a 5 to 10 per cent solution has mydriatic properties, prophylactically used for low blood pressure in influenza, pneumonia, etc. Used in tablet form for oral or hypodermic administration and in ampuls for hypodermic, intramuscular and intravenous use. It can advantageously be used in solution with liquid paraffin, either alone or in conjunction with methol camphor and oil of thyme. Dose, 1/2 to 1 grain. Synonyms include Ephedra, and Ma Huang.



Provide essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body. They transport fat-soluble vitamins and regulate blood cholesterol levels. Provide energy when the body’s carbohydrate level is depleted. Provide protection to vital organs. While fats are essential to the body, many people consume much more than necessary to remain healthy.

Folic acid

Vitamin important in the synthesis of DNA, tissue growth and the production of red blood cells.

Folic acid

Vitamin important in the synthesis of DNA, tissue growth and the production of red blood cells.


Gamma-linolenic Acid

Nutrient that increases the rate at which the body burns fat for energy; anti-inflammatory properties and other healthful benefits.


An herb (Korean - Panax Ginseng) (Siberian - Eleutherococcus senticosus) (American - panax quinqefolium),. The most costly root, ginseng is a low-growing, shade-loving perennial herb of the Araliaceae family. It is cultivated in China, Japan, Korea and Russia and can be taken in capsule form or as a tea. The United States can also cultivate this root.


Glucosamine sulfate and n-acetyl glucosamine occur widely in the exoskeleton of arthropods and crustaceans as their biopolymer, chitin. Glucosamine is also a basic constituent of cartilage. Glucosamine is a natural sugar produced by the body and found in certain foods. Glucosamine stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, two essential building blocks of cartilage. In most cases, the joints produce sufficient Glucosamine to keep the cartilage in good repair, but if they fail to do so, it dries out, degenerates, cracks, and may even completely wear away. Left unprotected, the joints then become swollen, stiff, inflamed, tender, and painful--the condition known as osteoarthritis. Advocates believe that by taking artificially synthesized Glucosamine sulfate supplements, osteoarthritis sufferers can "jump start" the natural production of Glucosamine by their own bodies.


A non-essential amino acid, glutamine is considered to be a brain fuel. Glutamine has been used therapeutically for alcoholism, mild depression and to reduce the craving for sweets. Glutamine is very important in the functioning of the metabolism and muscle maintenance. Glutamine supplementation can help prevent muscle and other tissue breakdown by providing the body with nitrogen and fuel.

Green Tea

An herb (Camellia sinensis). Green tea originates in China, Japan and other parts of Asia. The leaf of the plant is used in creating the extract which is potent and bioflavonoid-rich. This herb is used primarily for its free-radical scavenging capabilities. The key ingredient EGCG, which stands for Epigallocatechin Gallate, protects against digestive and respiratory infections. Historical uses of the tea are reducing high blood pressure, inhibiting pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning and blocking the actions of carcinogens, ultraviolet light and metastasis.



Plants containing many nutrients and phytochemicals, providing an array of health benefits. Herbs have been known for centuries, but are now becoming the basics of many modern medicines.

Hydroxycitric Acid

Naturally-occurring nutrient with the ability to inhibit the synthesis of carbohydrates into fat; also works as an appetite suppressant. Found in Relìv products under the brand name CitriMax®.



A nutrient that helps prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver; aids in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins.


A protein pancreatic hormone that is essential especially for the metabolism of carbohydrates and is used in the treatment and control of diabetes mellitus.


A mineral necessary for normal cell metabolism. Required by the thyroid gland in the synthesis and secretion of hormones.


A mineral essential to the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin (which carries oxygen in the blood and muscles, respectively). A part of several proteins and enzymes in the body.


Compounds found in soy which have been shown to significantly reduce serum cholesterol levels — the leading risk factor for heart disease — as well as alleviate menopausal symptoms in women and assist in combating numerous other serious health risks.


A nutrient responsible for the transportation of fats to cells for use in energy production.


Essential amino acid. Important for growth, tissue repair, and the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Research indicates that lysine may be useful in the treatment of migraine and herpes simplex. Precursor to carnitine in the body.



A mineral aiding many basic functions, including metabolism, heart rhythm, bone growth and the function of nerves and muscles.


A mineral playing a vital role in reproduction and energy production; very important in building healthy bones. Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) – Provide twice the energy of carbohydrates; have no significant effect on insulin production. Improve the absorption of amino acids and reduce muscle tissue breakdown.


A mineral required to activate certain enzymes that are necessary for thousands of bodily functions.


Niacin (Vitamin B3)

Crucial for conversion of food into energy; helps maintain normal functioning of the skin, nerves and digestive system.



A naturally derived wheat germ oil concentrate which has been clinically proven to increase oxygen utilization when exercising.



Functions in the breakdown and use of proteins in the formation of blood cells.

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

Essential in metabolizing food; aids in the synthesis of various body chemicals, such as hormones and cholesterol.

Phosphatidylserine (PS)

Increases the rate of protein synthesis during periods normally marked by muscle breakdown. Can aid in memory function.


Potassium/Potassium Phosphate is a mineral which assists in muscle contraction and in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in body cells. Potassium is used for regulating heartbeat and helps muscles contract and relax. Potassium is also important in sending nerve impulses as well as releasing energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism. Potassium can be found in potatoes, spinach, lentils, kidney beans, split peas, butternut squash, watermelon, raisins, yoghurt, orange juice, brussel sprouts, courgettes, bananas and broccoli.


The building blocks of the body. Composed of amino acids, which are vital to the body’s growth and function. Supplies valuable enzymes that regulate bodily functions. Key to muscle building and development.



Quercetin is a concentrated form of Bioflavenoids derived from citrus fruit. Bioflavonoids are also known as flavenoids. These compounds are occasionally classed together as Vitamin “P”. Quercetin is a water-soluble plant pigment. While Quercetin is not considered essential, it does support health as an anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and anti-viral agent.



Recommended Dietary Intake. Estimates of daily minimal dietary intake of established nutrients provided by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council. Optimal levels have not been formally established.


Saw Palmetto Berry

An herb (Sarena Serrulata). Saw Palmetto is a small palm tree with red berries which were used by Native American Indians to ease certain ailments. The red berries contain high concentrations of plant sterols, including B-sistosterol, which act as anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, the berries provide a variety of fatty acids and phytosterols which inhibit the action of dihydrotestosterone, the compound thought to be responsible for the enlargement of the prostate.


Selenium (Se) has been shown to prevent or slow aging and is an essential component of key antioxidant enzymes (anti-oxidants protect against free radicals, unstable oxygen molecules which are potentially damaging by-products of the body’s metabolism and which may contribute to the development of cardio-vascular disease and cancer This anti-oxidant action helps in the body by slowing cellular aging due to oxidation). Selenium also helps keep youthful elasticity in tissues and is essential for normal growth and development. Selenium can be taken as a dietary supplement either on its own or included in a multivitamin and multi mineral supplement and is usually included in meal replacement powders and bars.


Helps regulate blood pressure and water balance in the body.

St. Johns wort

An herb (Hypericum perforatum). St. John's Wort is an aromatic perennial herb which has been used for centuries for a wide variety of conditions. The plant's active compound, hypericin, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Hypericin has also been shown to have monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity, mimicking the action of antidepressant agents.



A naturally occurring androgenic hormone.


Tocotrienols along with tocopherols are from the vitamin E family of nutrients. Tocotrienols are derived from plants and are anti oxidants (anti-oxidants help in the body by slowing cellular aging due to oxidation). Vitamin E supplies oxygen to the blood which is then carried around the body to the organs helping with fatigue and nourishing cells and helping with muscle and nerve maintenance. Vitamin E also helps with cholesterol reduction, strengthens capillary walls and protects lungs. Most commercial vitamin E supplements do not contain the gamma form of the vitamin, depriving you of the full range of its antioxidant effects.

Tonalin (conjugated linoleic acid)

An essential fatty acid shown to reduce body fat and increase muscle tone.


A nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. May be important for neurotransmitter synthesis and mood regulation. May be useful for depression, allergies and addictive states.



Vanadium is an essential mineral present in many foods but one which is not easily absorbed. Trace amounts of Vanadium are essential in the diet but it is not entirely clear what role it plays in the body or what effect deficiency has on our bodies. Vanadium is found in several forms such as Vanadyl Sulphate and Vanadate.

Vitamin A

Fat-soluble vitamin that promotes good vision; helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth and skeletal and soft tissue; possibly increases resistance to infection.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is used in the body to digest carbohydrates and in the body’s metabolism to generate energy. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is essential for the normal function of the brain, nervous system, muscles and heart and promotes growth and muscle tone. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) also aids the circulation and helps maintain the intestines.

Vitamin B12

Important for metabolism regulation and red blood cell production; helps maintain a healthy central nervous system.

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is needed by the body to use oxygen and for the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates to produce energy. Vitamin B2 is also needed to activate Vitamin B6 and to create Niacin (Vitamin B3). Vitamin B2 is also used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration and growth. Vitamin B2 is also needed when protein intake is high and is most beneficial to the skin, hair and nails.

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 (Niacin), promotes release of energy from foods and aids efficient nervous system function, circulation, growth and metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Vitamin B3 also aids sex hormone production and reduces cholesterol levels in blood, reducing high blood pressure.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a water soluble vitamin essential for health. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is essential for more than 100 enzymes involved in synthesis and breakdown of amino acids (the building blocks of protein). Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is used for fat metabolism, red and white blood cell growth, antibody formation and for the efficient function of the nervous and lymphatic systems. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is also needed for the conversion of L-Tryptphan (an amino acid) to Niacin (Vitamin B3 which is also important to the circulatory and nervous systems.).

Vitamin C

Antioxidant that performs a variety of roles in the body, helping to promote healthy gums and teeth, aids in mineral absorption, helps heal wounds. May provide a variety of other health benefits.

Vitamin D

Promotes absorption of calcium and helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that acts as a major anti-oxidant protecting against free radicals, unstable oxygen molecules which are potentially damaging by-products of the body’s metabolism and which may contribute to the development of cardio-vascular disease and cancer This anti-oxidant action helps in the body by slowing cellular aging due to oxidation. Vitamin E supplies oxygen to the blood which is then carried around the body to the organs helping with fatigue and nourishing cells and helping with muscle and nerve maintenance.

Vitamin K

Vital to blood clotting; may help maintain strong bones with aging.



Xylitol is a white, odorless crystalline substance that looks and tastes like sugar and was discovered in 1891 by a German chemist- Emil Fischer. Xylitol is broadly classed as a carbohydrate but is absorbed slowly by the body and not all utilised and has 40% less calories than most other carbohydrates. Xylitol has been used in foods as a bulk sweetener for decades and is useful as a sugar substitute and in diabetic foods.


Yohimbe Bark

A hormone stimulant, particularly effective in the production of testosterone. Primary Uses: as an aphrodisiac affecting both the male impotence and female frigidity. Secondary Uses: in bodybuilding and athletic formulas where more testosterone production is desired.



Zinc is an essential mineral found in almost every cell in the body and an essential part of more than 100 enzymes. Zinc supports a healthy immune system and is used for protein synthesis, Zinc is used in the formation of collagen which is the base of bone onto which calcium is deposited. Zinc is also used for wound healing, and for a sense of taste and smell. Zinc is used to help prostrate gland function, burn and wound healing and reproductive organ growth and development.


Reprint from body building. com